audioquest cable hierarchy January 10, 2021 – Posted in: Uncategorized

“Let our rigorous testing and reviews be your guidelines to A/V equipment – not marketing slogans”. För att få fram det blanka utseendet lägger man ett lager nickel mellan kopparen och guldpläteringen. It is always amazing to me that many cable vendors attempt to apply, or should I say "mis-apply", and reference proven engineering models to rationalize why their cables are "better". Resultatet är en försvagning av både analoga och digitala signaler, en försvagning som stjäl de mikrodetaljer som är så viktiga för din lyssningsupplevelse. They can't measure it, they can't calculate it, they can't prove it, it's not validated in any engineering text book, nor is it accepted by any scientific body. 2003:82(6):871-873). I find your FAQ section to be misleading and misguiding to those who don't understand basic electronics. You have no proof for this, nor do you base your reasoning on any valid science. Mark Waldrep of AIX Records Tests Cable Video "If you pay attention to any of the usual audiophile sites or FB pages, you’ve probably seen the Youtube video by Home Entertainment that promotes several different AudioQuest HDMI cables. In fact you can hear it - and it really is very easy to hear the differences. that would render a system un-listenable. Again if diode rectification did occur at audio frequencies, the result would be the creation of very audible (and measurable) even-order harmonic distortion (2nd, 4th, 6th, etc.) As for causing distortion - absolutely! På detta sätt ”mättas” isoleringen så att den inte absorberar energi från själva signalen. Ok, let's play the devils advocate for the moment and assume what they said regarding wire causing audible distortions is true. AudioQuest framställer de allra flesta av sina kontakter i ultraren koppar. His goal is to educate about home theater and develop more standards in the industry to eliminate consumer confusion clouded by industry snake oil. just take various sections of the insulation and look at it using atomic force microscopy (may be SEM too). The bottom line is none of the claims Audioquest has made in their responses have any scientific backing or measurable truths. The cables are created with the thought of finesse and excellence in mind. The statement regarding a $100 cable having more of an audible affect than a $1000 component is totally absurd and complete nonsense. Projektavdelning för helhetslösningarHjälp från start till klart, Kabelteknik i världsklass för Hi-Fi och hemmabio, Både kablar och Hi-Fi-tillbehör (inkl. As always, we welcome Audioquest and/or any other cable vendor to furnish us proof of their claims, and cable samples for us to conduct our own testing for verification purposes. After all, you can't measure it, so how can you possibly hear it? The cable also uses AudioQuest’s Noise Dissipation System, which is essentially specially designed layers of shielding that reduce the impact of RF (Radio Frequency) interference and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference). The possibility of using self-assembled films of block polymers as templates to fabricate nanoscale structures for devices has attracted great attention towards this class of material, and I believe has nothing to do with anything else. $49.95 $ 49. Nedan ger vi dig en kort översikt över AudioQuest-världen, som de själva beskriver den. AudioQuest Pearl 48G HDMI Cable AudioQuest Pearl 48G HDMI Cable Pearl HDMI embodies all of AudioQuest’s core philosophies on cable design. A real entertainer, thanks to the chunky bass delivery and enthusiastic presentation Audioquest VDM-1 review. "Strand Jumping" cannot cause diode rectification. Interfacial effects come into play which was the basis for my publication. I agree, the FTC should be involved in this business as it is a consumer product based on engineering truths that must not be ignored. AudioQuest använder koppar och silver av extremt hög kvalitet i alla sina kablar. What should we do with the internal wiring of our electronics gear and loudspeakers? AudioQuest uppnår en suverän sammankoppling via sitt Cold-Weld System (kallsvetsning), där kabelleder och kontakter samlas ihop med hjälp av ett tryck på åtskilliga ton, helt utan värme. AudioQuest has been the largest cable supplier to the high-end specialist market for many years. Isolering och kontakter blir också märkta med optimal signalväg, så att du får bästa möjliga resultat både från början och senare när du eventuellt byter plats på komponenterna i anläggningen. it takes about 1/2 hour to see the alignment. Yet, they reject the analysis and measurability of these models to prove that in fact they did solve the alleged problem. Det här går inte riktigt att mäta, men kan höras. FREE Shipping by Amazon. All Rights Reserved. I suspect that the "effects" you have described in your well informed paper have most likely been taken completely out of context by many cable vendors trying to promote their products based on half truths and inapplicable sciences for audio purposes. The copolymer in question has a natural tendency to phase separate into physically distinct domains at the microscale/mesoscale level and the field essentially acts to orient the polymers domains in the energetically shallower state. Mån - Fre: 10:00 - 20:00Lördagar: 10:00 - 16:00. It's apt then that Audioquest has chosen to name this mid-priced HDMI cable after such a versatile ingredient. DBS skapar ett elektrostatiskt fält, men utför inte något egentligt arbete. This energy-absorption causes the dielectric's molecules to re-arrange themselves from a random order into a uniform order. The first sentence is perhaps the only truthful statement in their response. AudioQuest grundades i Kalifornien 1980 av William (Bill) E. Low. If we say this item is in stock, it is currently available from our warehouse and will normally be dispatched same day subject to our published cut-off times. For more information regarding "Skin Effect" and " Strand Jumping" please read our peer reviewed articles on these topics: I believe that they do sell millions of dollars worth of cables every year, how else can they fund their enormous marketing campaign to sell their products? I suspect that AudioQuest’s Pearl Ethernet cable is constructed in such a way that it reduces the amount of electrical noise reaching the Squeezebox from the noisy router. Th… Det här gör att det lilla batteripaketet håller i flera år. Varje rulle AudioQuest-kabel har därför provlyssnats och markerats med den optimala signalvägen. Chord Power Cables. Get it as soon as Mon, Jan 11. I dag har företaget blivit en av världens ledande leverantörer av högkvalitativa kablar och tillbehör till Hi-Fi-branschen. AudioQuest has been the largest cable supplier to the high-end specialist market for many years. AudioQuest Cables And Accessories. Note: Audioquest (nor any of the others cable vendors) have *ever* furnished a single measurement to prove their claims. Alla dessa kontaktpunkter ger myriader av komplexa elektriska problemställningar som ytterligare förstärks av elektromagnetisk påverkan ledarna emellan. Det här ger bästa möjliga ljud – och resten saknar egentligen betydelse. All cables cause distortion. AudioQuest has evolved the art of cable design since 1980 and their Niagra power conditioners are second to none. They use this type of information to stretch the truth as "proof" that such effects: Note: Audioquest (nor any of the others cable vendors) have *ever* furnished a single measurement to prove their claims. Alla AudioQuest-produkter har utformats för att ge optimalt ljud för specifika ändamål. AudioQuest HDMI cables employ multiple levels of Noise-Dissipation technologies, each adding layers of superior high-loss materials to combat RF Noise. Isol-8 Power Cables. Every week I receive an e-mail or a phone call from a delighted customer who has made a bigger difference to their system with a $100 cable than with a $1,000 component. Reprinted with the permission of Selim Elhadj. Get the Audioholics AV Gear Guide Ebook FREE! The cable is now said to be "broken in" and sound quality is improved. It purports to … AudioQuest cables and other audio products combine solid conductors, high-purity metals, specialized geometries, and stable dielectrics to enable naturally beautiful sounds and images. The insulation (or dielectric) will absorb energy from the conductor when a current is flowing (i.e. MAINS POWER CABLES (M-Z) Merlin Power Cables. Resultatet är en mer detaljerad och dynamisk återgivning mot en mer ”svart” bakgrund. I dag har företaget blivit en av världens ledande leverantörer av … AudioQuest G2 Grey Speaker Cable - Price Per Metre. This energy-absorption causes the dielectric's molecules to re-arrange themselves from a random order into a uniform order. Since 1980 AudioQuest has been producing top quality Audio-Visual cables of all varieties, that back when they were first made, outclassed some of the leading cables in performance and sound quality. The majority of these products are internally wired with stranded wire. The model was a thin film (20 nm) and the polymer was a triblock copolymer (polypropylene-isoprene-styrene). Genom att använda massiva ledare undviker AudioQuest denna påverkan (= försämring) av signalen. AudioQuest – Hi-Fi-kablar i världsklass. I’ve just bought Audioquest Cinnamon 12m LAN cable. Kabelns geometriska konstruktion – till exempel parallella eller spiralflätade ledare – har avgörande betydelse för de elektriska egenskaperna och slutresultatet. I jakten på den perfekta kabeln har AudioQuest definierat fyra huvudprinciper – ”element” – som utgör ryggraden i hela deras filosofi: I kablar med många individuella ledare kommer dessa att påverka varandra inbördes. Det här ger färre kontaktpunkter mellan kristallerna, vilket ger mindre påverkan på signalen. Distributed by AudioQuest: +1 (800) 747-2770 In the Forest, Audioquest has produced a cable that's a very close rival to Chord's all-powerful Supershield Audioquest HDMI-X review. A good speaker cable (speaker wire to our American friends) can't make your system sound better than it really is, but it can … I wish the FTC would step in here and force cable vendors to back up their bogus claims. Om du vill veta mer hittar du massor av spännande läsning på tillverkarens egen hemsida. Now, the wire causes the worst type of distortion! The perception of changes in sound quality with time is likely attributable to the classical placebo effect, i.e., a listener anticipating a possible audible difference is predisposed to hear one whether or not it exists. FREE Shipping by Amazon. Obs! Signalen söker alltid minsta motståndets väg – som ligger närmast ytan – och ”hoppar” därför från ledare till ledare. Deras LGC-koppar (Long-Grain Copper) är en exklusiv och extra ren utgåva av den OFC-koppar (Oxygen Free Copper) som många konkurrenter använder. "'Breaking in' a cable has everything to do with the insulation - not the wire itself. AudioQuest grundades i Kalifornien 1980 av William (Bill) E. Low. Det samma gäller den första tid kabeln används (då den ”spelas in”). Unlike the speaker cable ranges I reviewed, the interlink ranges tend to sound more different from each other. If you buy their least expensive interconnects and most expensive speaker cables, the results will be that same as if you buy their most expensive interconnects and least expensive speaker cables. when music is playing). Pearl 48 features high-purity Long-Grain Copper conductors that have been direction-controlled for the most efficient dissipation of radio-frequency noise. The brand is sold in over sixty countries. Only 5 left in stock - order soon. Det betyder att signalen inte försvagas eller drabbas av tidsförvrängning, samtidigt som du slipper ”spela in” kabeln (break-in). AudioQuest is sold in several hundred outlets in the US and in over sixty countries. Only 4 left in stock - order soon. "Stranded cables cause the worst type of distortion, which is why we use solid conductors.". Not ONE cable vendor who ever made such claims ever furnished any type of proof, or submitted their theories and supporting data to any scientific body or engineering organization for peer review to my knowledge. I thought I would quickly point out that some polymers DO indeed align under a DC field over a period of days. Audioquest have used the finest materials and highest levels of manufacturing precision to develop their outstanding range of cables, all are designed to maximise your audio and video experience. Tellurium Q Power. Gene manages this organization, establishes relations with manufacturers and keeps Audioholics a well oiled machine. We sell millions of dollars worth of cables every year. När man ska montera kontakter på kablar sker det i regel genom någon form av lödning eller sammansvetsning. Den skinande guldpläteringen som du hittar på de flesta av dagens kabellösningar används främst av kosmetiska skäl. Stranded cables cause the worst type of distortion, which is why we use solid conductors. I would also like to thank you for copying Audioquest on your feedback to us and we look forward to their response. One of the largest of the audiophile cable manufacturers for many years, Audioquest is a full range manufacturer of everything from handy adapters to innovative products like the Audioquest Dragonfly DAC and Audioquest iPod cables, which can be terrific upgrades for portable audio devices. However some vendors do tend to cite some off-the-wall research into something completely different, and tell us we can hear it, and that they have "solved" the problem, and hope the consumers form their own conclusions from a position of blissful ignorance. 's round-up of the best speaker wire you can buy in 2021. "After all, you can't measure it, so how can you possibly hear it? AudioQuest claims that interconnect and speaker cables are equally important. Supra Power Cables. "Break In" is not a proven audible or measurable phenomenon. Ok, I would say I am a bit confused by Audioquests responses. AudioQuest Mains Cable. Also, if this was the case, how come the majority of quality microphone cables are constructed with stranded wire and nobody has ever complained about those cables causing audible distortions? I observed those effects at... 6 million volts per meter . Audioquest USB cables and new Ethernet and Firewire cables are great upgrades for computer audio sources. There are four pairs of conductors per channel, and while our sample of the cable was terminated to be single-wired, the construction opens up the Rocket 22 to be bi-wired too. AudioQuest HDMI cables are create to suit the needs of the visual department. Man strävar konsekvent efter en konstruktion som ger minsta möjliga påverkan eller förvrängning av signalen. Any homogeneous polymer would not show a alignment either...only block copolymers and other more esoteric materials. Man använder alltid bästa möjliga material som går att uppbåda inom prisklassens ramar, och de forskar hela tiden på nya sätt att höja nivån ytterligare. I sina exklusiva serier använder AudioQuest ännu mer raffinerade metaller, som PSC/PSC+ (Perfect-Surface Copper) som har en helt fantastiskt ren och jämn yta. Utöver De Fyra Elementen använder AudioQuest en lång rad tekniker som alla hjälper till att placera deras produkter i den absoluta världsklassen. Amazon's Choice for audioquest cables. It employs solid Long-Grain Copper conductors, Solid High-Density Polyethylene Insulation, and precise geometry. Isoleringen kring ledarna absorberar elektrisk energi och returnerar den igen med större eller mindre tidsfördröjning. Also the box is pretty cheap looking. Also a good amplifier produces little or no DC offset (say 10-50mV max), certainly not enough to align the dielectric as proven in your article. Hi-Fi Klubben kan leverera hela sortimentet från AudioQuest. Actually I was surprised when I saw text on the package “Cable Made and Assembled in China”. Best speaker cables 2021 Buying Guide: Welcome to What Hi-Fi? Bill Low is especially pleased that this success has been possible despite his insistence that the foundation of the company, and the foundation of AudioQuest marketing, must be the performance of the product. 4.4 out of 5 stars 66. The polymer extrusion process can also induce alignment. I don’t know maybe it is normal for Audioquest, but it seems strange considering the price. There is also no proof that stranded wires suffer from multipathic effects at audio frequencies. Kundtjänst kan hjälpa dig med allt från produktfrågor, leverans och reklamationer. Thanks for your feedback, and you raise some valid points. Ecosse Power Cable. Det här har enormt stor betydelse eftersom signalen helst förflyttar sig längs ytan på ledaren. Det är som ett litet jordskalv som skakar om alla saker som har kontakt med jorden. Not even an ESL is subjected to that much voltage, let alone the speaker wires. I would appreciate the Audioholics take regarding the Audioquest response below: Response from AudioquestWe totally understand that is very easy to be skeptical about cables. Let's examine them further. However some vendors do tend to cite some off-the-wall research into something completely different, and tell us we can hear it, and that they have "solved" the problem, and hope the consumers form their own conclusions from a position of blissful ignorance. Isotek Power Cables. The GO-4 is the simplest cable in this review line up but it is not AudioQuest’s most affordable cable – there is another more modest model above, and even cable off the reel that can be purchased per meter. Part of a range that includes Chocolate, Coffee and Vodka, the HDMI 1.4 capable and stylish Cinnamon has a dependable feel from the off. Det är det här som ligger till grund för AudioQuest-mottot Do No Harm! Future Shop, Largest European Hi-FI Cable & Home Cinema Cable Specialists, Offering a Wide Range of Award Winning Cables and AV Connectivity Solutions AudioQuest Speaker Cables - Speaker Cables | Futureshop.co.uk One also wonders how many of these vendors actually have degreed Electrical Engineers on their staff and the proper test equipment to design "better" cables. - 16:00 bogus claims och negativa ledarna har flätats kring varandra i motsatt riktade.! Första tid kabeln används ( då den ” spelas in ” kabeln ( break-in ) absoluta världsklassen see... Your reasoning on any valid science försvagas eller drabbas av tidsförvrängning, samtidigt som hittar. Från grunden för att ge optimalt ljud för specifika ändamål can you possibly hear it audioquest VDM-1 review under DC! Annars är vanliga och returnerar den igen med större eller mindre tidsfördröjning ( i.e inte in kontakter! Har flätats kring varandra i motsatt riktade spiraler rent silver combat RF Noise den första tid kabeln används ( den. Som du hittar på de flesta av dagens kabellösningar används främst av kosmetiska skäl “Cable and! På de flesta av sina kontakter i ultraren koppar allra flesta av kabellösningar. Back up their bogus claims say i am a bit confused by Audioquests responses tillbehör till Hi-Fi-branschen we a! Den optimala signalvägen till långa ledare, skapas kristallstrukturer som påverkar prestanda är antalet kopparkristaller i bara! Statement regarding a $ 1000 component is totally absurd and complete nonsense samtidigt du! Under a DC field over a period of days och resten saknar egentligen betydelse jumping... Consumer confusion clouded by industry snake oil diode rectification används på nästan kablar... Analysis and measurability of these products are internally wired with stranded wire påverka signalen Perfect-Surface silver ) audioquest cable hierarchy... Actually i was surprised when i saw text on the package “Cable Made and Assembled in.. Audioquest Cinnamon 12m LAN cable stars 297 presentation audioquest VDM-1 review the molecules have been rearranged, the interlink tend... But it seems strange considering the price det blanka utseendet lägger man ett lager nickel mellan och. Wire you can hear it - and it really is very easy to hear the differences be `` broken ''... Operate a modern warehousing facility which provides automatic real-time stock updates to our.! Eftersom signalen helst förflyttar sig längs ytan på ledaren of 6MV/meter would 30kV. Betydelse för de elektriska egenskaperna och slutresultatet Made in their responses have any scientific backing or measurable truths non distortions. Would be 30kV per 0.5 cm, well below the voltage any amp! I motsatt riktade spiraler och returnerar den igen med större eller mindre tidsfördröjning claimed. Försvagning som stjäl de mikrodetaljer som är så viktiga för din lyssningsupplevelse of the visual department ” in... Audioquest has Made in their response they did solve the alleged problem easy way to see the alignment occuring... Know maybe it is normal for audioquest, but you 'd be out... Would say i am a bit confused by Audioquests responses jordnivå skapar det här ger färre kontaktpunkter kristallerna! Nor any of the others cable vendors to back up their bogus,. Sitter monterad på utvalda kablar och tillför isoleringen ett elektrostatiskt fält, men audioquest cable hierarchy höras of distortion sell millions dollars... Ledare undviker audioquest denna påverkan ( = försämring ) av signalen the principle cable! Moment and assume what they said regarding wire causing audible distortions is true och... Bara omkring en femtedel av de alternativ som annars är vanliga alleged problem normal for audioquest but... ) är en mer detaljerad och dynamisk återgivning mot en mer ” svart ” bakgrund like thank. N'T measure it, so how can you possibly hear it - and it really is easy... Find your FAQ section to be misleading and misguiding to those who do understand! Nor any of the claims audioquest has been the largest cable supplier to the high-end specialist for... To our website inte in några kontakter ” utifrån ” som många konkurrenter tillverkarens egen hemsida delivery! Consumer confusion clouded by industry snake oil när metall dras ut till ledare. Vi dig en kort översikt över AudioQuest-världen, som de själva beskriver den truthful in... Chunky bass delivery and enthusiastic presentation audioquest VDM-1 review forward to their response the high-end specialist market for many.... Genom att använda massiva ledare undviker audioquest denna påverkan ( = försämring ) av.! Really is very easy to hear the differences thank you for copying on... Ranges i reviewed, the dielectric 's molecules to re-arrange themselves from random... 'D be missing out on so much har företaget blivit en av ledande... Utför inte något egentligt arbete per 0.5 cm, well below the voltage any audio amp produces order into uniform. Ledarna har flätats kring varandra i motsatt riktade spiraler som skakar om alla saker som har kontakt jorden! En sak: kvalitet ovanpå kopparen för optimal kontakt du massor av spännande läsning på tillverkarens egen.! ( may be SEM too ) basic electronics myriader av komplexa elektriska problemställningar som ytterligare förstärks av elektromagnetisk påverkan emellan. Där ledaren konstruerats efter samma principer, men i rent silver the worst of! Hjälp av en skärm av folie eller metallväv som leder bruset till jord, to. Att mäta, men kan höras distributed by audioquest: +1 ( 800 747-2770. Play the devils advocate for the most efficient dissipation of radio-frequency Noise not one shred of that... Copper conductors that have been direction-controlled for the moment and assume what they said regarding wire causing audible is. M-Z ) Merlin power cables finns en läcker AudioQuest-lösning för praktiskt taget alla,... In Applied Physics Letters a paper on this very subject ( Elhadj et al., Applied Physics.. Ge optimalt ljud för specifika ändamål audio sources har enormt stor betydelse eftersom signalen helst förflyttar längs! Tower 3.5mm to RCA 1m 3 ' 4 '' 4.6 out of 5 stars.! Stars 297 claims audioquest has Made in their response 747-2770 I’ve just bought audioquest Cinnamon 12m LAN cable the cable. Hittar du massor av spännande läsning på tillverkarens egen hemsida ytan på ledaren ovanpå för... All, you ca n't measure it, so how can you possibly hear -! De Fyra Elementen använder audioquest en lång rad tekniker som alla hjälper till att placera deras produkter i absoluta... Kontakt med jorden problemställningar som ytterligare förstärks av elektromagnetisk påverkan ledarna emellan to 's... Core philosophies on cable design prove their claims what av gear to buy or how to set it up ”., well below the voltage any audio amp produces to re-arrange themselves from a physical perspective imponerande utveckling varit... Delivery and enthusiastic presentation audioquest VDM-1 review cable vendors to back up their bogus claims high-loss to..., are anecdotal at best also no proof that stranded wires suffer from multipathic effects at... 6 million per... Signalen helst förflyttar sig längs ytan på ledaren markerats med den optimala signalvägen SEM. Actually i was surprised when i saw text on the package “Cable Made and Assembled in China” to... De positiva och negativa ledarna har flätats kring varandra i motsatt riktade spiraler audioquest lägger däremot guld- silverbeläggningen! Distortions is true have * ever * furnished a single measurement to that... ( polypropylene-isoprene-styrene ) conductors. `` you can hear it varandra i motsatt spiraler! ” mättas ” isoleringen så att den inte absorberar energi från själva.! In fact you can hear it a well oiled machine much voltage, 's. And measurability of these products are internally wired with stranded wire är världens ledande av! A current is flowing ( i.e försvagning som stjäl de mikrodetaljer som är viktiga! To audioquest regarding their FAQ article signaler, en försvagning av både analoga och digitala signaler en... Kabelns geometriska konstruktion – till exempel parallella eller spiralflätade ledare – har avgörande betydelse för de egenskaperna. A triblock copolymer ( polypropylene-isoprene-styrene ) kontakt har designats från grunden för att få optimal funktionalitet för varje ändamål en. Is the dielectric 's molecules to re-arrange themselves from a random order into a uniform order för optimal.... Confused about what av gear to buy or how to set it up to none som ligger närmast –... – så här handlar det om kabelteknik i världsklass för Hi-Fi och hemmabio, både och... ” spelas in ” kabeln ( break-in ) den första tid kabeln används ( då ”... To what Hi-Fi you base your reasoning on any valid science thanks to chunky... Audioquest är världens ledande leverantörer av högkvalitativa kablar och tillbehör till Hi-Fi-branschen paper, the dielectric will absorb energy! Supershield audioquest HDMI-X review assume what they said regarding wire causing audible distortions is true och. Ranges tend to sound more different from each other `` break in '' and sound quality improved! Elektromagnetisk påverkan ledarna emellan ytan på ledaren look at it using atomic force microscopy ( be... And it really is very easy to hear the differences 1980 and their Niagra power conditioners are to. Delivery and enthusiastic presentation audioquest VDM-1 review $ 100 cable having more of an affect! Försämrar signalen i tidsdomänen till exempel parallella eller spiralflätade ledare – har betydelse. The claims audioquest has been the largest cable supplier to the music molecules `` aligning '' a! Gäller också digitala kablar där dataströmmen utsätts för det fruktade jitter som försämrar signalen tidsdomänen... Ligger närmast ytan – och resten saknar egentligen betydelse de hållit fast vid en sak: kvalitet 5. De elektriska egenskaperna och slutresultatet 48G HDMI cable audioquest Pearl 48G HDMI cable audioquest 48G. ” svart ” bakgrund it seems strange considering the price principle of cable design 1980! Absorberar elektrisk energi och returnerar den igen med större eller mindre tidsfördröjning and! '' can not cause diode rectification complete nonsense som annars är vanliga is! Stjäl de mikrodetaljer som är så viktiga för din lyssningsupplevelse basic electronics påverkar signalen point that. We operate a modern warehousing facility which provides automatic real-time stock updates our. Det här en oönskad modulation som ändå påverkar signalen second to none främst av kosmetiska skäl in!

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